Biomaterials and Bioproducts in Human Life
Biomaterials and Bioproducts in Human Life
Definition of BiomaterialsBiomaterials have definitions that can be approached with two approaches and perspectives, namely according to biosystem engineering (Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering) and according to biological engineering (Chemical and Biological Engineering).
According to biosystem engineering, biomaterials are defined as biomass-based materials or are biological materials that have added value and are used both in the fields of food, energy and health.
Biomaterials in this category can be referred to as bioproducts, namely food products, energy and health based on biological materials or biomass. Some biomaterials included in this category, for example, wood, tubers, seeds, fibers, animal products are converted into biofuels, biooil, biodiesel, bioethanol, biochar, and bioplastics.
Whereas in the field of biological engineering, biomaterials are all types of material both natural and man-made materials that are used to replace part or all of living organs or structures or biomedical devices that function, support or replace the natural functions of living organs. Some biomaterials in this category are all types of materials from metals, polymers, ceramics or composites that are used for interactions with living tissue.
The most important characteristic of the material used for this purpose is the nature of biocompatibility, namely the suitability of functions in their interactions with living tissue, without triggering the occurrence of side reactions that harm the living tissue.
For example the use of certain types of metal used as opening coronary arteries that are blocked by fat deposits or others, is an example of the utilization of biomaterials and bioproducts in this category.
Installation of a Ring on the Coronary Heart
In addition to the distinctive classification, there are slices that can bring together biomaterial studies in both fields. Biomaterials in the first category (bioproducts) can also be used as materials in biomaterials in the second category. An example of this type of biomaterial is bioceramics. Bioceramics are ceramic-type materials produced from the synthesis of calcium from living materials.
Bioceramics generally contain tri calcium phosphate or hydroxyapatite, and can be made from natural ingredients from animals and plants that contain lots of calcium. Bioceramics can be synthesized for example from marine products such as fish scales, shrimp shells, crab shells or livestock products such as beef bones. Bioceramics can be used as dental implants or bone substitutes.
Utilization of biomaterials for Dental Implants
Biomaterials and Bioproducts in BiorefinariIn understanding Biosystem Engineering, biomaterials are derivative products from biomass. Biomass itself represents a renewable resource that has a net zero carbon footprint or carbon-neutral. This means that the amount of carbon released into the environment on the utilization of biomass (carbon release) is equal to the amount of carbon absorbed (carbon sequestration).
The use of this term in the context that CO2 produced in the process of energy production, transportation or industry, will be absorbed by biomass producers, such as plants and forests.
Biomass has enormous potential as a source for bioenergy, biopower and biomaterial production to meet human needs. Technological developments in genetic science, biotechnology, chemical processes and engineering make it possible to produce the concept of conversion of biomass into fuel and high value products, through a process known as biorefinari.
In the current development of biorefinari technology, commercial products have begun to emerge that are ready to compete for market needs, such as biodiesel and bioethanol. The support of advanced technology and appropriate policies will be able to deliver on changes in natural resource use with the concept of total integration of innovative plant resources, synthesis of biomaterials, and a new generation of biofuels and biopower.
Innovative plant resources mean innovative efforts to increase biomass production by multiplying two or more. Innovations are carried out through various studies to increase the efficiency and production of biomass for example:
- Increased biomass production per unit area by decreasing the perception of the closest environment by photomorphogenic response manipulation of far red / red phytochrome using a light perception system.
- Improve photosynthesis by optimizing photoperiodic responses and leaf architecture.
- Increase plant resistance to pests and diseases, tolerance to drought and extreme temperature changes, and sterilization of flowers.
- Delay of leaf drifting and plant dormancy.
- Increased root efficiency and maximizes the biomass that grows above the ground.
- Optimizing the use of nitrogen.